The dominant vegetation throughout much of the Anzali Wetland consist of vast Reed bed (Phragmites australis). About two-thirds of the whole Anzali Wetland including almost the entire eastern and central portion of the main wetland is covered by Reeds. The open-water areas of wetland support extensive beds of the Lotus (Nelumbo mucifera) and a very rich growth of other floating and submerged vegetation including Water Snowflake (Nymphoides indica) etc. There are patches of woodland with Alders (Alnus glutinosus) and Willow (Salix alba) in high ground and along river and canal banks. Unfortunately the Azolla community as alien species covers about a quarter of the Anzali Wetland except for the lagoon.
Mammal fauna includes the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), Common Otter (Lutra lutra), Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Common Badger (Meles meles), etc.
Reptiles and Amphibians include the Grass Snake (Natrix natrix), Caspian turtle (Mauremys caspia), European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis), Iranian Long leg Frog (Rana macrocnemis), Eurasian Marsh Frog (pelophylax ridibundus) etc. Regarding Fish fauna, it is currently known that there are 49 fish species in Anzali Wetland. In addition, the Anzali Wetland is a huge habitat of diverse insects.